"The Graphic Differential. An instrument for the international assessment of emotional brand experiences"


Graphic Differentials are based on the technique of the Semantic Differential which
has been used in psychological research for the measurement of emotions.


But they are superior to this technique because they assess the mental images people
associate with emotions visually and therefore without detour through verbalisation.


In some cases mental images differ internationally. When it comes to the measurement
in groups of different languages for example the Graphic Differential has to be adopted
to their visual language.

The author describes the steps in the development of two Graphic Differentials and
how they have been validated in Germany and France.


The Graphic Differential is not only suitable for the assessment of emotional brand
experiences but also for international testing of lifestyle oriented advertising.


Source: Dmoch, T. (1999), "Das Graphische Differential. Ein Instrument zur internationalen
Messung emotionaler Markenerlebnisse", Planung & Analyse, Vol. 26. , No.2, p. 58 - 63.



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